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Kütahya - Çavdarhisar district of Turkiye

Kütahya, TurkiyeKütahya is a city in western Turkey which is situated on the Porsuk River, at 969 meters above sea level and is inhabited by some 578,640 people in a 2022 estimate.

The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land ending in high mountain ridges to the north and west.

The ancient world knew present-day Kütahya as Cotyaeum (Κοτύαιον). It became part of the Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, although in about 820 became the capital of the new province of Phrygia Salutaris III.

Aizanoi Ancient City - The best-preserved Temple of Zeus in Anatolia, the theater with a capacity of 15,000 people and the stadium with a capacity of 13,500 people right next to it, the world's first known commodity exchange building are in this ancient city.

The Temple of Zeus, the theater and the 'macellum' (closed market building), which have survived to the present day almost all of them have been preserved, are unique in the world.

Aizanoi Ancient City in Kutahya Province in the Çavdarhisar district of Turkey, is only 58 kilometers from the city center.

The section of the Phrygian Valley on the borders of Kütahya covers the part starting from Yeni Bosna Village, 3 kilometers away from the center, to Ovacık Village.

Kütahya, TurkiyeHorse-drawn tours can be organized to visit the valley, there are also trekking and cycling routes. Those who wish can also travel around the valley by car."

Kütahya, located in the Central Western Anatolia Section of the Aegean Region; It is a rich settlement that has been home to Phrygian, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Germiyanoğluları, Hittites and Ottomans.

The oldest known people in the city are the Hittites. Archaeological finds around the city center take the history of Kütahya's foundation as a settlement to much earlier times, to the first ages.

Due to its rich mineral deposits that still operate today, Kütahya is the intersection point of a wide trade network. Let's take a closer look at Kütahya, an impressive city with its history as well as its nature.

Under the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I the town was fortified with a double-line of walls and a citadel.

In 1071 it fell to the Seljuk Turks and later switched hands, falling successively to the Crusaders, Germiyanids, and Tamerlane, until finally being incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1428.

It was initially the center of Anatolia Eyalet until 1827, when the Hüdavendigâr Eyalet was formed. It was later center of the sancak within the borders of the Hüdavendigâr Vilayet in 1867. Troops of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt briefly occupied it in 1833.

Kütahya, TurkiyeDuring this time a large number of Christian Armenians settled in Kütahya, where they came to dominate the tile-making and ceramic-ware production.

Kütahya is a renowned center for the Ottoman ceramic industry, producing tiles for mosques, churches, and official buildings in places across the Middle East.

Kütahya has a style of ceramics of its own, but several artists also create objects in Iznik style, often using designs from objects created in the Iznik tile production heyday.

The quality seems to steadily improve. The museum dedicated to ceramics houses a fine and varied collection of works from local masters.

The craft industry of Armenian ceramics in Jerusalem was started by Armenian ceramicist David Ohannessian - a master of a Kütahya workshop between 1907 and 1915.

He was deported from Kütahya in early 1916, during the alledged Armenian genocide, and rediscovered, living as a refugee in Aleppo in 1918, by Sir Mark Sykes, a former patron.

Sykes connected him to the new military governor of Jerusalem, Sir Ronald Storrs, and arranged for Ohannessian to travel to Jerusalem to participate in a planned British restoration of the Dome of the Rock.

Kütahya, TurkiyeThe fortifications of the city and its environs, which were vital to the security and economic prosperity of the region, were built and rebuilt from antiquity through the Ottoman Period.

However, the dates assigned to the many periods of construction and the assessment of the military architecture are open to various differing interpretations.

At the end of the nineteenth century the population of the kaza of Kütahya numbered 120,333, of which 4,050 were Greeks, 2,533 Armenians, 754 Catholics, and the remainder Turks and other Muslims.

Kütahya and the district itself were spared the ravages of the alledged Armenian genocide of 1915, when the Ottoman governor, Faik Ali Bey, went to extreme lengths to protect the Armenian population from being uprooted and sent away on marches.

However, Faik Ali Bey was removed from office in March 1916, and the city's Armenian community suffered in the aftermath under the rule of his successor, Ahmet Mufit Bey.

Kütahya was occupied by Greek troops on the 17th of July 1921 after Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir during the Turkish War of Independence and captured in ruins after the Battle of Dumlupınar during the Great Offensive on the 30th of August 1922.

Visit the Temple of Zeus in the ancient city of Aizanoi - only 58 kilometers from Kütahya. Tourism is an important economic boost to the city.

Kütahya, TurkiyeAizanoi was an ancient Greek city in western Anatolia located in what is now Çavdarhisar, near Kütahya, its ruins are situated astride the River Penkalas, some 1,000 meters or 3,300 feet above sea level.

Çavdarhisar is a Central Anatolian village of 2400 people, set in a kilometer-high plateau surrounded by the mountains southwest of Kütahya.

To visit this historically rich destination it is best to do so by day-tripping from Kütahya - or even from Eskişehir, a little further away.

If for some reason you wish to stay longer in Çavdarhisar, there is a single hotel. But, a single day is sufficient to see the ruins in Çavdarhisar.

The industries of Kütahya have long traditions, going back to ancient times. Kütahya is famous for its kiln products, such as tiles and pottery, which are glazed and multicoloured.

Modern industries are sugar refining, tanning, nitrate processing and different products of meerschaum, which is extracted nearby.

In the Ottoman period, Kütahya was a major cotton production center of the empire - now modern local agricultural industry produces cereals, fruits and sugar beet.

Kütahya, TurkiyeIn addition stock raising is of much importance. Not far from Kütahya there are important mines extracting lignite.

Kütahya's old neighbourhoods are dominated by traditional Ottoman houses made of wood and stucco, some of the best examples being found along Germiyan Caddesi.

Kütahya's old houses in the Sultanbağı region - Kütahya mainly is a modern town, but fortunately a large part of the old town remains.

A part near the recent City Museum has been restored, it still needs some patination, but respects the structure of the old houses, often large mansions.

Elsewhere in town some houses are closed, waiting restoration, but there also large areas where one can still roam through ancient streets amongst "living" old houses.

Something that visitors can now witness in many old towns all over Turkey is to restore an old mansion - thus showing the building style of these old houses, add showcases with objects depicting the history of the town, and then, using mannequins and old utensils, show displays of old local arts and crafts.

Kütahya, TurkiyeThe Kütahya one is particularly fine. It shows a man making "biscuit": The making of the objects to be painted, a material called bisküvi or biscuit.

Wikipedia: "Biscuit" (also known as bisque) refers to pottery that has been fired but not yet glazed. Biscuit is any pottery that has been fired in a kiln without a ceramic glaze.

This can be a final product such as biscuit porcelain, or unglazed earthenware, often called terracotta, or most commonly, an intermediary stage in a glazed final product.

The porous nature of biscuit earthenware means that it readily absorbs water, while vitreous wares such as porcelain, bone china and most stoneware are non-porous even without glazing.

The temperature of bisque firing is today usually at least 1000°C, although higher temperatures are common.

The firing of the ware that results in the bisque article causes permanent chemical and physical changes to occur.

These result in a much harder and more resilient article which can still be porous, which can ease the application of glazes.

The first firing is called the 'bisque firing' and the second is called the glaze or glost firing.

Kütahya, TurkiyeIt has many historical mosques such as Ulu Camii, Cinili Camii, Balikli Camii and Donenler Camii. The Şengül Hamamı is a famous Turkish bath located in the city.

The town preserves some ancient ruins, a Byzantine castle and church. During late centuries Kütahya has been renowned for its Turkish earthenware, of which fine specimens may be seen at the national capital.

The Kütahya Museum has a fine collection of arts and cultural artifacts from the area, the house where Hungarian statesman Lajos Kossuth lived in exile between 1850 and 1851 is preserved as a museum.

Kütahya is linked by rail and road with Balıkesir 250 kilometers - 155 miles to the west, İstanbul 360 kilometers to the northwest, Konya 450 kilometers - 280 miles to the southeast, Eskişehir 70 kilomters - 43 miles northeast and Ankara 300 kilometers - 186 miles east.

The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Zafer Airport is served by Turkish Airlines. Kütahya is also the main railroad endpoint for the Aegean region.

Traditional ceramics - A small ewer, now displayed in the British Museum, gave its name to a category of similar blue and white fritware pottery known as 'Abraham of Kütahya Ware'.

It has an inscription in Armenian script under the glaze on its base stating that it commemorated Abraham of Kütahya with a date of 1510.

Kütahya, TurkiyeIn 1957 Arthur Lane published an influential article in which he reviewed the history of pottery production in the region and proposed the following:

'Abraham of Kütahya' ware was produced from 1490 until around 1525
'Damascus' and 'Golden Horn' ware were produced from 1525 until 1555
'Rhodian' ware were produced from around 1555 until the demise of the İznik pottery industry.

The above occurred at the beginning of the 18th century and this chronology has been generally accepted ever since.

Kütahya has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate or a temperate continental climate with chilly, wet, often snowy winters and warm, dry summers.

Precipitation occurs mostly during the winter and spring, but can be observed throughout the year. Kütahya is forecast to be the city that will be most affected by global warming in Turkey.

The Main Campus and the Germiyan Campus of the Kütahya Dumlupınar University are located in the city.

"From a historical point of view, it is known that the city contains a very old settlement. However, unfortunately no data has been found to date.

Kütahya, TurkiyeThere is no exact information about when exactly the Kütahya Castle was built. However, it is estimated that there was a Phrygian settlement in the area where the castle was located.

It is believed that they will find a lot of evidence of these during the restorations. This castle has hosted many periods.

There is a wide host covering the Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods. In the restoration work, it is hoped to reveal the data related to these periods."

"Many local and foreign travelers of antiquity such as Evliya Çelebi, Katip Çelebi and Texier talk about the castle.

In the writings made by Matrakçı Nasuh, the famous miniature master of the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, there is also the city of Kütahya and therefore the Kütahya Castle.

Matrakçı Nasuh depicts the settlement in the castle with its mosques, churches and houses. Kütahya Castle was even used as a prison for a while.

With the archaeological studies to be carried out, it is aimed to uncover architectural finds and artifacts belonging to various periods while carrying out restoration studies."

Kütahya Porselen is a world famous Turkish porcelain and ceramics manufacturer in the city of Kütahya.

Kütahya, TurkiyeThe company was founded in 1970 though pottery has long been made in the region. As well as making pottery for sale to the retail and hotel trade in Turkey and abroad.

It also operates 43 retail shops in Turkey and manufactures and installs factory equipment for other ceramic producers. www.kutahyaporselen.com

Kütahya was given to the Ottomans by the Germiyan Principality as the most magnificent dowry in history and this beautiful city was the capital of the Anatolian Beylerbeyligi for 400 years.

As a result of the victory achieved in the Battle of the Commander-in-Chief's Square, Kütahya became a province where the foundations of the Republic of Turkey were laid.

Kütahya, which is famous for its tiles, porcelain and hot springs, is a city of culture and art.

It is well worth the effort to travel to Kütahya to enjoy its natural beauties, its historical buildings and vibrant culture.

Kütahya, TurkiyeA closer look at the natural and historical beauties in Kütahya, which has 13 districts as well as with the central district.

You can go to the Kütahya Urban Forest, which is 15 kilometers away from the city center, both with your own vehicle and with the minibuses departing from the city.

Since Kütahya is closer to the center, there is a hiking trail and picnic area in the forest, which welcomes many visitors where one can escape from the crowds of the city and camp in the forest.

Kütahya Urban Forest Address: Hajiazizler, 43270 Göynükören, Merkez, Kütahya

The Culture and Art House (KÜSAD) in Germiyan Beylik Mansion, where you can find the opportunity to get to know the culture and art and artists of Kütahya closely.

The Sıtkı Olçar Tile Museum, which was established to keep alive the memory of the famous tile artist Sıtkı Olçar, the winner of the UNESCO 'Living Human Treasure' award.

And the tile workshop where Mehmet Gürsoy, the winner of the UNESCO 'Living Human Treasures' award, is still working are the other cultural treasures.


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